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Democratic ideals of integration for international and European nations are as old as the modern nation-state. In the Renaissancemedieval trade flourished in organisations like the Hanseatic Leaguestretching from English towns like Boston and Londonto FrankfurtStockholm and Riga.
These traders developed the lex mercatoriaspreading basic norms of good faith and fair dealing through their business. Inthe Protestant Reformation triggered a hundred years of crisis and instability. Martin Luther nailed a list of demands to the church door of WittenbergKing Henry VIII declared a unilateral split from Rome with the Act of Supremacyand conflicts flared across the Holy Roman Empire until the Peace of Augsburg guaranteed each principality the right to its chosen religion cuius regio, eius religio.
This unstable settlement unravelled in the Thirty Years' War —killing around a quarter of the population in central Europe. The Treaty of Westphaliawhich brought peace according to a system of international law inspired by Hugo Grotiusis generally acknowledged as the beginning of the nation-state system.
Even then, the English Civil War broke out and the tensions did not fully end until the Glorious Revolution ofby Parliament inviting William and Mary of Orange from Holland to the throne, and passing the Bill of Rights In William Penna Quaker from London who founded Pennsylvania in North America, argued that to prevent ongoing wars in Europe a "European dyet, or parliament" was needed.
The Treaty of Romesigned in Musei Capitolini was the first international treaty that envisaged social, economic and political integration, within limited fields, for nation-states.
To "save succeeding generations from the scourge of war, which twice. Also, the Council of Europeformed by the Treaty of Londonadopted a European Convention on Human Rightsoverseen by a new transnational court in Strasbourg in Its theory was simply that war would be impossibly costly if ownership and production of every country's economy was mixed together.
It established an Assembly now the European Parliament to represent the people, a Council of Ministers for the member states, a Commission as the executive, and a Court of Justice to interpret the law.
Although Stalin died in and the new general secretary Nikita Khrushchev had denounced him in Soviet tanks crushed a democratic Hungarian Revolution ofand repressed every other attempt of its people to win democracy and human rights.
The EU evolved from the Coal and Steel Community of 6 member states, to a union of 28 member states in A referendum in the UK of Based on the Spaak Report ofit sought to break down all barriers to trade in a common market for goods, services, labour and capital, and prevent distortion of competition and regulate areas of common interest like agriculture, energy and transport.
Spain also applied and was rejected as it was still led by the Franco dictatorship. The same year, the Court of Justice proclaimed that the Community constituted a "new legal order of international law".
Shortly after, de Gaulle boycotted the Commission, which he believed was pressing supranationalism too far.
The Luxembourg compromise in agreed that France or other countries could veto issues of "very important national interest", particularly relating to the Common Agricultural Policyinstead of making decisions by " qualified majority ".
But after the May events in France and de Gaulle 's resignation, the way was free for the United Kingdom, Ireland and Denmark to join in Norway had rejected joining in a referendumwhile the UK confirmed its membership in a referendum.
The dictators of Greece and Portugal were deposed inand Spain's dictator died inenabling their accession in and Inthe European Parliament had its first direct elections, reflecting a growing consensus that the EEC should be less a union of member states, and more a union of peoples.
The Single European Act increased the number of treaty issues in which qualified majority voting rather than consensus would be used to legislate, as a way to accelerate trade integration.
Meanwhile, inthe Soviet Union 's Mikhail Gorbachev announced policies of "transparency" and "restructuring" glasnost and perestroika. This revealed the depths of corruption and waste. These elections, in which anti-communist candidates won a striking victory, inaugurated a series of peaceful anti-communist revolutions in Central and Eastern Europe that eventually culminated in the fall of communism.
In Novemberprotestors in Berlin began taking down the Berlin Wallwhich became a symbol of the collapse of the Iron Curtainwith most of Eastern Europe declaring independence and moving to hold democratic elections by Sinceanti-austerity protests have flared across Europe, particularly in AthensGreece, demanding the European Central Bank and Commission upholds social and economic rights.
The Treaty of Maastricht renamed the EEC as the " European Union ", and expanded its powers to include a social chapterset up a European Exchange Rate Mechanismand limit government spending.
The UK initially opted out of the social provisions, and then monetary union after the Black Wednesday crisis where speculators bet against the pound. Sweden, Finland and Austria joined inbut Norway again chose not to after a referenduminstead remaining part of the European Economic Areaabiding by most EU law, but without any voting rights.
A newly confident EU then sought to expand. First, the Treaty of Nice made voting weight more proportionate to population two Irish referenda rejected, but then accepted this.European Union law is the system of laws operating within the member states of the European srmvision.com EU has political institutions and social and economic policies.
According to its Court of Justice, the EU represents "a new legal order of international law". The EU's legal foundations are the Treaty on European Union and the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union, unanimously . Gender Inequality Essay.
By Lauren Bradshaw. July 13, Despite the way each perspective approaches the issue of gender inequality, they all accept the fact that there is a gender inequality among men dominating over women. thesis or dissertation on Gender Inequality topics at our professional custom essay writing service which provides.
Interval notation is a method of writing down a set of numbers. Usually, this is used to describe a certain span or group of spans of numbers along a axis, such as an x-axis.
However, this notation can be used to describe any group of numbers. The one most directly related is What Causes Gender Inequality: Analytical Foundations; a more general class, What Causes Inequality: Analytical Foundations, may provide materials for broader questions about different kinds of inequalities and how to think about gender inequality .
Nov 30, · The Office of Public Affairs (OPA) is the single point of contact for all inquiries about the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA). We read every letter, fax, or e-mail we receive, and we will convey your comments to CIA officials outside OPA as appropriate.
1)write an inequality a. the sum of three times a number and 2 lies between 7 and 14 srmvision.com less than 4 times a number is at most 44 and at least 2)which is not a solution of -4 is less than or equal to x less than or equal to 8.