On September 20,George W. Terrorism is by no means a problem confined to the 21st Century. The number of terror attack victims in Western Europe since shows that the number of victims in the s and s was higher than in the s. However the dominant trends of terrorism in the 21st century are the profound impact of terrorism on the Middle East, North Africa and South East Asia, as exemplified by the number of terrorist attacks by region.
Universe, Lincoln Nebraska, pp. Reviewed by Maximiliano E. Korstanje Department of Economics University of Palermo Argentina Undoubtedly, post-September 11, terrorism posed great a challenge for the well-functioning of tourism and hospitality.
Of course, travelers have historically been attacked by insurgents simply because they represent the epicenter of vulnerability, discrediting the State whose charge it is the protection of foreigner travelers.
As something else than a criminal act, terrorism should be understood as a political act whereby violence take to more vulnerable actors as the main prey. Quite aside from this, what World Trade Center reminded was not only the failures of control in the airspace of the US but also the onset of a new state of fear that invaded immediately to other countries worldwide.
In this backdrop, Professor Derman Kucukaltan introduces readers to the slippery connection between tourism and terrorism.
His book represents a serious academic effort to expand the current understanding of how tourism works worldwide and impacts of terrorism upon local Tourism and terrorism. Travel and technological advances have certainly transformed the modern forms of displacement. Considering the crisis as an outstanding state of distress or misery that affects ordinary people and social order, Kucukaltan argues convincingly that some crises cannot be predicted timely.
In this vein, the author does not hesitate to point out: Globalization refers not only to the flow technology, labor and money but also to the disadvantages Tourism and terrorism of Tourism, Volume XI, No. Book Review of that technology, labor and money — a crisis can spread beyond geographical and economic borders.
The main argument in this book is when humankind is unable to meet the affordable and necessary resources for achieving its goals and develop skills, the situation naturally brings into a crisis.
After further examination of the economic factors that potentiate or mitigate a state of emergency, this insightful work suggests that tourism and hospitality are too sensible to economic inequalities. Ranging from inflation and increasing of prices to the ecological deterioration of non-renewable resources, economic crisis causes several and much profound problems to tourism simply because it paves the pathways for the advent of political instability and of course terrorism.
The consequences of terrorism might extend even to neighboring countries and this should be considered with paramount importance during policy-making and planning. The primary point of discussion in this book is associated with the belief that all wars as well as political crises correspond with the convergence between religious, economic, and ideological reasons.
To some extent, Kucukaltan acknowledges that even if war shows negative aftermaths for local economies, the nostalgia for involved countries or the sentiment of nationalism can very well create a demand-boom even for tourism and hospitality industries.
That way, battlefields are often commoditized to be offered as a product of mass-consumption for international tourists. This means that crisis or disasters should be capitalized and transformed in tourist- spots Thanatourism and Darktourism seems to be alternative form of consumption emerged post-disaster.
The versatility of tourism to face and overcome states of disasters becomes clear after reading this book.
Another main contribution of this book is the complexity of tourist- system which replicates the earlier conditions that facilitated the state of disaster. If tourism is known to be negatively affected by economic, ecological, and politic crises, it is not clear how this activity not only survives in situations of emergencies but also grows.
This is perhaps the most intriguing, interesting, and important contribution of Tourism and Terrorism. Nonetheless, one of the aspects that balk the understanding of this book seems to be a supposed lack of homogeneity between what the authors declare in the introductory chapter and the subsequent developments.
In fact, this book examines repeatedly how the different crises impinge on tourism and hospitality but less than required attention is given to terrorism as main threat. In a way, many times, tourism and terrorism this represents our stance are part of the same phenomenon.
However, this is a much deep- seated issue which merits more detained discussion.
Sociologically speaking, the material dispersion suffered by economies because of globalization and free trade is counteracted by other means. Terrorism and ethnic resentment, in this light, works as mechanisms of social control to the extent Nation-States gain much required legitimacy. The repudiation that engenders the death of children and women as vulnerable targets is plausible for politic manipulation.
The bio-power and principle of shortage plays a pivotal role in increasing the sentiment of uncertainty that characterize the late-modernity.
It might be that terrorism and tourism are need for the suffering of otherness to survive. This suggests that the lines and boundaries between otherness strangers and selfhood home are often blurred. In recent years, a neologism has been coined: This is to denote the attractiveness of certain destinations at war-fare.
Because of voyeurism, many travelers are interested in visiting zones of conflicts such as those in Israel, Colombia, Afghanistan etc. In this backdrop, tourism can be seen as a consequence of war and vice-versa. The suffering of others is elaborated in a mediated object closely circumscribed to mass-consumption.
What this book does not address is that existent inequalities that potentiated the conflict persist even in peace- times until the surfacing of a new episode of dispute.Liberal Studies Independent Enquiry Study Report Title: Eco-tourism or Eco-terrorism: Do Ecotours in Hong Kong Contribute to Sustainable Development of the Natural Environment Through.
Tourism and Sustainable Development in Egypt Submitted to: Plan Blue Prepared by: Dr. Adel Rady CEO of Tourism Development Authority March 19, Aside from Cagayan de Oro, Misamis Oriental has another city, albeit, a smaller one compared to Cagayan de Oro- the city of Gingoog City, a component city which is located in the eastern part of the province..
While adventure tourism in Cagayan de Oro is promoted heavily in the tourism circles, there are other things to see and do in Misamis Oriental. This edition of the TTCI covers economies worldwide. Table 1 shows the overall ranking, based on the updated methodology described in full in Appendix srmvision.comgs by pillar and subindex are available in Appendix B..
Table 1: The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Index Ranking. Political Analysis, Espionage, Terrorism, Security. Avigdor Lieberman resigned as Israel’s defense minister on Wednesday, Nov. 14 over two issues: Israel’s assent to the transfer of $15m to Gaza, and the Gaza ceasefire after nearly To Make Tourism an Economic Force Of Development 4 As to country of origin, Western European countries, such as Germany, United Kingdom and France, claimed the top five.