Programs carried out by his colleagues to bring China out of the economic depression caused by the Great Leap Forward made Mao doubt their revolutionary commitment and also resent his own diminished role. He especially feared urban social stratification in a society as traditionally elitist as China. Mao thus ultimately adopted four goals for the Cultural Revolution: They were organized into groups called the Red Guardsand Mao ordered the party and the army not to suppress the movement.
Since last spring, Chinese authorities in the heavily Muslim region of Xinjiang have imprisoned tens, possibly hundreds of thousands of Muslim Chinese — and even foreign citizens — in mass internment camps. US State Department estimates detainees "at the very least in the tens of thousands" Detainees who most vigorously criticise the people and things they love are rewarded Those who refuse are punished with solitary confinement, beatings and food deprivation This detention campaign has swept across Xinjiang in what a US commission on China last month said was "the largest mass incarceration of a minority population in the world today".
Omir Bekali, a Kazakh Muslim, and other former detainees told the Associated Press how they had to disavow their Islamic beliefs, criticise themselves and their loved ones and give thanks to the ruling Communist Party.
When Mr Bekali refused to follow orders each day, he was forced to stand at a wall for five hours at a time.
A week later, he was sent to solitary confinement, where he was deprived of food for 24 hours. After 20 days in the heavily-guarded camp, he wanted to kill himself. Radical Muslim Uighurs have killed hundreds in recent years, and China considers the region a threat to peace in a country where the majority is Han Chinese.
The camps have expanded rapidly over the past year, with almost no judicial process or legal paperwork. Detainees who most vigorously criticise the people and things they love are rewarded, and those who refuse to do so are punished with solitary confinement, beatings and food deprivation.
The recollections of Mr Bekali, 42, offer what appears to be the most detailed account yet of life inside so-called re-education camps. Most spoke on condition of anonymity to protect their families in China. Although some details are impossible to verify, two Kazakh diplomats confirmed he was held for seven months and then sent to re-education.
It is partly rooted in the ancient Chinese belief in transformation through education — taken once before to terrifying extremes during the mass thought reform campaigns of Mao Zedong, the Chinese leader sometimes channelled by Mr Xi.
The detention program evokes the mass thought reform campaigns of Mao Zedong. When asked why non-Chinese had been detained, it said the Chinese Government protected the rights of foreigners in China and they should also be law-abiding. Chinese officials in Xinjiang did not respond to requests for comment.
However, bits and pieces from state media and journals show the confidence Xinjiang officials hold in methods they say work well to curb religious extremism. But by the time they were released, nearly all — Transformation through education, the researcher concluded, "is a permanent cure".
All-encompassing, data-driven surveillance tracked residents in Xinjiang with around 12 million Muslims, including ethnic Uighurs and Kazakhs. Viewing a foreign website, taking phone calls from relatives abroad, praying regularly or growing a beard could land one in a political indoctrination camp, or prison, or both.
The new internment system was shrouded in secrecy, with no publicly available data on the numbers of camps or detainees. The US State Department estimated those being held were "at the very least in the tens of thousands".
A Turkey-based TV station run by Xinjiang exiles said almostwere detained, citing leaked government documents.
AP First posted May 18, Stephen R. Mackinnon & John Fairbank invariably failed to separate fondness for the Chinese communist revolution from fondness for Gong Peng, the communist fetish who worked together with Anneliese Martens to infatuate American wartime reporters.
(More, refer to the Communist Platonic Club at wartime capital Chungking.). 5 Colossal Events That Changed China Forever "Knowledge of five major historical events is essential to fully understanding contemporary Chinese politics and foreign policy.".
Last month in Shanghai, Chinese venture capitalist Eric X. Li made a provocative suggestion. The United States, he said, was going through its own "Cultural Revolution.". This relative isolation from the outside world made possible over the centuries the flowering and refinement of the Chinese culture, but it also left China ill prepared to cope with that world when, from the midth century, it was confronted by technologically superior foreign nations.
A groundbreaking study of cultural life during a turbulent and formative decade in contemporary China, this book seeks to explode several myths about the Cultural Revolution (officially ). Chinese red guards during the cultural revolution in Photograph: Universal History Archive/UIG via Getty Images But it was also an attempt by the elderly dictator, whose authority had been.