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Effects on the economy[ edit ] In the latter half of the 19th century, both the direct administration of India by the British crown and the technological change ushered in by the industrial revolutionhad the effect of closely intertwining the economies of India and Great Britain.
Since Dalhousie had embraced the technological change then rampant in Great Britain, India too saw rapid development of all those technologies. Bywith a history of 60 years of its construction, only ten per cent of the "superior posts" in the railways were held by Indians.
Although famines were not new to the subcontinent, these were particularly severe, with tens of millions dying,  and with many critics, both British and Indian, laying the blame at the doorsteps of the lumbering colonial administrations.
The canal was closed to navigation in to increase irrigation and aid in famine-prevention. Railway map of India in Railway construction in India had begun in The station was completed in Beginnings of self-government[ edit ] The first steps were taken toward self-government in British India in the late 19th century with the appointment of Indian counsellors to advise the British viceroy and the establishment of provincial councils with Indian members; the British subsequently widened participation in legislative councils with the Indian Councils Act Municipal Corporations and District Boards were created for local administration; they included elected Indian members.
The Indian Councils Act — also known as the Morley-Minto Reforms John Morley was the secretary of state for India, and Gilbert Elliotfourth earl of Minto, was viceroy — gave Indians limited roles in the central and provincial legislatures, known as legislative councils.
Indians had previously been appointed to legislative councils, but after the reforms some were elected to them. At the centre, the majority of council members continued to be government-appointed officials, and the viceroy was in no way responsible to the legislature.
At the provincial level, the elected members, together with unofficial appointees, outnumbered the appointed officials, but responsibility of the governor to the legislature was not contemplated. Morley made it clear in introducing the legislation to the British Parliament that parliamentary self-government was not the goal of the British government.
The Morley-Minto Reforms were a milestone. Step by step, the elective principle was introduced for membership in Indian legislative councils. The "electorate" was limited, however, to a small group of upper-class Indians.
These elected members increasingly became an "opposition" to the "official government". The Communal electorates were later extended to other communities and made a political factor of the Indian tendency toward group identification through religion.
Earlier, at the onset of World War I, the reassignment of most of the British army in India to Europe and Mesopotamia had led the previous Viceroy, Lord Hardingto worry about the "risks involved in denuding India of troops.
Consequently, ineven as Edwin Montagu announced the new constitutional reforms, a sedition committee chaired by a British judge, Mr.
Bengalthe Bombay presidencyand the Punjab. The Government of India was nevertheless able to use of its "official majority" to ensure passage of the bills early in In particular, rural candidates, generally sympathetic to British rule and less confrontational, were assigned more seats than their urban counterparts.
The principal of "communal representation", an integral part of the Minto-Morley Reformsand more recently of the Congress-Muslim League Lucknow Pact, was reaffirmed, with seats being reserved for MuslimsSikhsIndian ChristiansAnglo-Indiansand domiciled Europeans, in both provincial and Imperial legislative councils.
Round Table Conferences [ edit ] The three Round Table Conferences of —32 were a series of conferences organised by the British Government to discuss constitutional reforms in India. Demands for swarajor self-rule, in India had been growing increasingly strong.
By the s, many British politicians believed that India needed to move towards dominion status.India was under British colonial rule from till There were many changes in the policies, economy and various other circles of life that happened in Indian’s life and country in general during British colonial rule.
The British Exploitation. Slowly but surely, the countrymen started realizing that the British were taking advantage of innocent Indians and they would perish under their hands for no reason. ADVERTISEMENTS: Read this article to learn about the economic impact of British rule in India!
The major difference between the British colonists in India and earlier invaders was that none of the earlier invaders made any structural changes in Indian economy or drained away India’s wealth as tribute.
ADVERTISEMENTS: British rule in India caused a [ ].
The economic policies followed by the British led to the rapid transformation of India’s economy into a colonial economy whose nature and structure were determined by the needs of the British economy.
British rule was one of the toughest time India faced as the country. India got affected in many ways during British colonial rule but there was a positive side too, which cannot be denied either.
k Views · View 5 Upvoters · View Sharers. The economic policies followed by the British led to the rapid transformation of India’s economy into a colonial economy whose nature and structure were determined by the needs of the British economy.