Earthrise taken from Apollo 8 on December 24, The idea of the Earth as an integrated whole, a living being, has a long tradition. James Lovelock gave this name to his hypothesis after a suggestion from the novelist William Goldingwho was living in the same village as Lovelock at the time BowerchalkeWiltshireUK.
The electronic version issued November contains several factual corrections; several informational footnotes which were not included in the paper version; and a few additions to the bibliography.
The Regents were a corporation empowered to act as trustees of Columbia College originally chartered as King's College in and closed during the Revolutionary War and of every other college and academy incorporated in the state thereafter.
The Regents originally consisted of the governor, other state officers, and the mayors of New York and Albany, ex officio, plus twenty-four persons appointed for life. This unwieldy body soon got involved in the day-to-day administration of Columbia. In a Regents' committee recommended that colleges and academies have their own trustees, and that the Regents be given broader responsibilities for overseeing education in New York.
A compromise bill became law. The act empowered the Regents to "visit and inspect all the colleges, academies, and schools" in the state, award higher academic degrees, hold and distribute funds, and exercise other powers of a corporation.
Until the board was Acknowledgement thesis library system under the unification act ofnineteen Regents were elected for life terms by joint ballot of the Legislature; in addition, the governor and lieutenant governor served as Regents. Since the University of the State of New York has been continued by the Constitution, which states that its corporate powers "may be increased, modified, or diminished" by the Legislature.
The Regents' protean power to "visit and inspect" member institutions of the University has taken various forms.
During the nineteenth century the Regents exercised oversight by reviewing statistical reports from academies and colleges; only occasionally did Regents actually visit an institution.
The Regents adopted standards for incorporating private academies and collegesand required academies to offer acceptable programs in order to receive aid from the Literature Fund, established in The Legislature made the Regents trustees of the State Library and the collections of the State Museum in andrespectively.
During the later nineteenth century the Regents developed educational standards for academies and high schools statewide, through use of the Regents examinations and syllabi.
These innovations were discussed and promoted by the University convocations, meetings of educators held annually starting The scope of the University expanded significantly in andwhen the Regents obtained legislation giving them the right to incorporate and supervise libraries, museums, correspondence schools, and other educational institutions.
The Secretary to the Board of Regents had long administered the affairs of the University. Starting in the Secretary then the redoubtable Melvil Dewey, also head of the State Library supervised full-time inspectors of secondary schools, libraries, colleges, and other institutions reporting to the Regents.
Unification of the University and Department of Public Instruction. New York State also developed a statewide system of public schools, under the common school law of Gideon Hawley, the first Superintendent of Common Schools, organized the system, distributed school aid from the Common School Fund, and prodded local officials to set up school districts and submit reports.
Hawley was dismissed in for political reasons, and thereafter the Secretary of State served as the Superintendent of Common Schools. In the Legislature created a Department of Public Instruction, headed by a Superintendent elected jointly by the Senate and Assembly for a three-year renewable term.
The new Department had a small staff which carried on the work of advising local school authorities, allocating state aid, and preparing reports to the Legislature.
The responsibilities of the Regents and the state officials in charge of the common schools overlapped. The Regents had a vague statutory authority to oversee all education in the state. The latter official shared with the Regents the responsibility to inspect and report on academies. The rapid development of public high schools after the s caused administrative confusion.
The high schools were operated by union free or city school districts, which the law made subject to visitation and inspection by the Superintendent of Public Instruction.
However, the academic programs of all secondary schools were under general supervision of the Regents. Unification of elementary, secondary, and higher education under one administration was considered and rejected by the constitutional conventions of andand proposed in legislative bills from time to time.
Outright competition between the Regents and the Department of Public Instruction became intense and public during the s, when the Superintendents of Public Instruction lobbied to have all secondary education placed under their control.
But during the same decade the University's activist program under Secretary Melvil Dewey won the Regents many new supporters. In the annual University convocation requested Governor Theodore Roosevelt to name a special commission to study unification.
The commission's report proposed that a new department of education succeed the Department of Public Instruction and include the University, and that the Regents be appointed for fixed terms by the Governor with consent of the Senate.
A joint legislative committee in recommended that elementary and secondary education be entrusted to a three-member commission, consisting of one Regent and two other members appointed by each of the two major parties in the Legislature.
Governor Benjamin Odell and a Republican legislative caucus drew up their own, very different unification bill. This bill became law, establishing an Education Department, effective April 1, The new Department was headed by a Commissioner of Education, appointed by and responsible to the Regents.
Draper, who had previously served two terms as Superintendent of Public Instruction, was named the first Commissioner of Education. Regents were to be elected by joint ballot of the Legislature to serve fixed terms, initially eleven years; some of the sitting Regents were continued in office.Every result described in this thesis was accomplished with the help and support of fellow lab-mates and collaborators.
Neal Scruggs and I worked together on several diﬁerent phases of the self-assembled gels project, and without his eﬁorts my job would have undoubtedly been more di–-cult.
Home to just over students, Augustana offers a world class education with the benefits of a smaller campus environment.
At Augustana, you can enroll in courses in over 30 areas of study from science to business management to the fine arts and humanities, and take part in . Cybernetics: the science of communication and control theory that is concerned especially with the comparative study of automatic control systems (as the nervous system and brain and mechanical-electrical communication systems).
Turnitin provides instructors with the tools to prevent plagiarism, engage students in the writing process, and provide personalized feedback. III. SCHOOL DISTRICT ORGANIZATION AND STATE AID. The Free Common School srmvision.com yearly after , the Regents and the Governor urged the Legislature to establish and endow a system of common schools.
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