Most accept the view that "a civilization is a culture which has attained a degree of complexity usually characterized by urban life.
Modern Iraq covers almost the same area as ancient Mesopotamia, which centered on the land between the Tigres and the Euphrates Rivers. Mesopotamia, also referred to as the Fertile Crescent, was an important center of early civilization and saw the rise and fall of many cultures and settlements.
In the medieval era, Iraq was the name of an Arab province that made up the southern half of the modern-day country. In today's Republic of Iraq, where Islam is the state religion and claims the beliefs of 95 percent of the population, the majority of Iraqis identify with Arab culture.
The second-largest cultural group is the Kurds, who are in the highlands and mountain valleys of the north in a politically autonomous settlement. The Kurds occupy the provinces of As Sulaymaniyah, Dahuk and Irbil, the area of which is commonly referred to as Kurdistan.
Iraq, in the Middle East, issquare milessquare kilometerswhich is comparable to twice the size of Idaho. Baghdad was the name of a village that the Arabs chose to develop as their capital and is in the central plains.
The northern border areas near Iran and Turkey are mountainous and experience cold, harsh winters, while the west is mostly desert. The differences in climate have influenced the economies of the various areas and ethnic groups, especially since a large part of the economy used to be agriculturally based.
The estimated Iraqi population for is 22, people. Arabs comprise about three-fourths of the population, and Kurds compose about one-fifth.
The remaining people are divided into several ethnic groups, including Assyrian, Turkoman, Chaldean, Armenian, Yazidi, and Jewish.
Almost all Iraqis speak and understand their official language, Arabic. Arabic, a Semitic language, was introduced by the Arab conquerors and has three different forms: Classical Arabic, best known by scholars, is the written language of the Qur'an.
Modern standard Arabic, which has virtually the same structure in all Arabic-speaking countries, is taught in schools for reading and writing. The spoken language is Iraqi Arabic, and is extremely similar to that which is spoken in Syria, Lebanon, and parts of Jordan.
Those who go to school learn Modern Standard Arabic, and many that do not attend school are likely to at least understand it. The major differences between modern standard and Iraqi Arabic are changes in verb form, and an overall simplicity in grammar of the spoken Arabic.
Kurdish is the official language in Kurdistan, and serves to distinguish Kurds from other Iraqis. It is not of Semitic origin nor an Arab or Persian dialect, but a distinct language from the Indo-European family.
Other minority languages include Aramaic, Turkic, Armenian, and Persian. In the s a cultural campaign was launched to influence a national consciousness based on Iraq's history, including the pre-Islam era and the former glory of Mesopotamia and Babylon.
The goal was to focus on a new cultural life for modern Iraq and to emphasize Iraq's uniqueness, especially in the Arab world. Archaeological museums were built in several cities, which held exhibitions and educational programs especially for children, so that they were made aware of the historical importance of their culture and nation.
In order to promote this center of attention on history, several ancient sites from the city of Babylon were reconstructed, such as the Ziggurat of Aqarquf, the ruins of Babylon, the temple of Ishtar, the southern Iraq fortress of Nebuchadnezzar, and the Greek amphitheater.
The Iraqi flag is also an important national symbol, and is composed of three colored, horizontal sections, starting with red on the top, white, and black. On the white band there are three green five-pointed stars.Mesopotamian religion: Mesopotamian religion, beliefs and practices of the Sumerians and Akkadians, and their successors, the Babylonians and Assyrians, who inhabited ancient Mesopotamia (now in Iraq) in the millennia before the Christian era.
These religious beliefs and practices form a single stream of tradition. A Time-line for the History of Mathematics (Many of the early dates are approximates) This work is under constant revision, so come back later.
Please report any errors to me at [email protected] We present an insightful article by eminent scholar of Vedas and History – Sri Rajveer Arya (aryarajveer @ srmvision.com) written three years ago on the issue of Sri Rama being a myth or a historical legend.
Mesopotamia to the end of the Achaemenian period The Kassites, the Mitanni, and the rise of Assyria. About years after the death of Hammurabi, his dynasty was destroyed by an invasion of new peoples.
Because there are very few written records from this era, the time from about bce to about bce (in some areas until bce) is called the dark ages. A history of Ancient Sumer (Sumeria)including its Cities, Kings, Mythologies, Sciences, Religions, Writings, Culture, Cuneiform and Contributions.
Mesopotamian religion: Mesopotamian religion, beliefs and practices of the Sumerians and Akkadians, and their successors, the Babylonians and Assyrians, who inhabited ancient Mesopotamia (now in Iraq) in the millennia before the Christian era.
These religious beliefs and practices form a single stream of tradition.