Wednesday, April 19, Monarch Profile: He was the last Turkish monarch to hold absolute power over his empire and his reign saw the shift in the Turkish position internationally which was to ultimately lead to the Ottoman Empire being on the losing side in the First World War, which finally brought about its downfall.
Abdul Hamid II was also interested in opera and personally wrote the first-ever Turkish translations Abdul hamid ii and the removal many opera classics. Most people expected Abdul Hamid II to support liberal movements, however, he acceded the throne in in a very difficult and critical period for the Empire.
Economic and political turmoillocal wars in the Balkansin addition, the Russian-Ottoman war of threatened the existence of the Ottoman Empire. Abdul Hamid used these difficult times to recreate the absolutist regime and to dissolve the parliament and usurping all political power until his overthrow.
First Constitutional Era, —[ edit ] See also: The political structure of Western norms did not work with the Ottoman political culture, as they were contradictory with various Muslim beliefs and ideas, but the pressure from the Western world was enormous to adapt western ways of political decision.
On 23 Decemberdue to the insurrection in Bosnia and Herzegovinathe war with Serbia and Montenegro and the feeling aroused throughout Europe by the cruelty used in stamping out the Bulgarian rebellionAbdul Hamid promulgated the constitution and its parliament.
In any event, like many other would-be reforms of the Ottoman Empire change, it proved to be nearly impossible.
Russia continued to mobilize for war. However, everything changed when the British fleet approached the capital from the Sea of Marmara. Early in the Ottoman Empire went to war with the Russian Empire.
Ottoman troops under Romanian attack at the Siege of Plevna in the Russo-Turkish War —78 Circassian Muslim refugees uprooted from their homelands due to the Russian invasion of the Caucasus Abdul Hamid's biggest fear, near dissolution, was realised with the Russian declaration of war on 24 April In that conflict, the Ottoman Empire fought without help from European allies.
Russian chancellor Prince Gorchakov had effectively purchased Austrian neutrality with the Reichstadt Agreement. The British Empire, though still fearing the Russian threat to British dominance in Southern Asia, did not involve itself in the conflict because of public opinion against the Ottomans, following reports of Ottoman brutality in putting down the Bulgarian uprising.
The Russian victory was quickly realised. The conflict ended in February The Treaty of San Stefanosigned at the end of the war, imposed harsh terms: After the war with Russia, Abdul Hamid suspended the constitution in Februaryand he also dismissed the parliament after its solitary meeting in March He was also very fearful of the ottoman empire being ended.
As Russia could dominate the newly independent states, her influence in South-eastern Europe was greatly increased by the Treaty of San Stefano.
Due to the insistence of the Great Powers especially the United Kingdomthe treaty was later revised at the Congress of Berlin so as to reduce the great advantages acquired by Russia. In exchange of these favours, Cyprus was "rented" to Britain in There were troubles in Egypt, where a discredited khedive had to be deposed.
Abdul Hamid mishandled relations with Urabi Pashaand as a result Great Britain gained virtual control over Egypt and Sudan by sending its troops in with the pretext of "bringing order" to those provinces. Cyprus, Egypt and Sudan remained as Ottoman provinces "on paper" untilwhen Britain officially annexed those territories in response to the Ottoman participation in World War I on the side of the Central Powers.
There were key problems regarding the Albanian question resulting from the Albanian League of Prizren and with the Greek and Montenegrin frontiers where the European powers were determined that the decisions of the Berlin Congress should be carried into effect.
Abdülhamid II, (born Sept. 21, , Constantinople [now Istanbul, Turkey]—died Feb. 10, , Constantinople), Ottoman sultan from to , under whose autocratic rule the reform movement of Tanzimat (Reorganization) reached its climax and who adopted a policy of pan-Islamism in opposition to Western intervention in Ottoman affairs. Apr 19, · Abdul Hamid II was born on September 21, at the Topkapi Palace in Constantinople (Istanbul). His father was Sultan Abdulmecid I who had nineteen wives and forty-three children. In keeping with Ottoman tradition, most of these wives were Europeans; Chechen, Georgian, Bosnian, Circassian or srmvision.com: The Mad Monarchist. Topics: Ottoman Empire, Ottoman Dynasty, Abdul Hamid II Pages: 4 ( words) Published: April 27, Abdulhamid II, The Final Autocrat The Ottoman Empire had many autocratic rulers from origin of its empire; some were prosperous while others were failures.
The union in of Bulgaria with Eastern Rumelia was another blow. The creation of an independent and powerful Bulgaria was viewed as a serious threat to the Ottoman Empire.
For many years Abdul Hamid had to deal with Bulgaria in a way that did not antagonize either Russian or German wishes. Crete was granted extended privileges, but these did not satisfy the population, which sought unification with Greece.
In early a Greek expedition sailed to Crete to overthrow Ottoman rule on the island. Made up of Kurds as well as other ethnic groups such as Turcomansand armed by the state, they came to be called the Hamidiye Alaylari "Hamidian Regiments".
Abdul Hamid II did not hesitate to put down these revolts with harsh methods while using the local Muslims in most cases Kurds against the Armenians. News of the Armenian massacres were widely reported in Europe and the United States and drew strong responses from foreign governments and humanitarian organizations alike.
On 21 Julythe Armenian Revolutionary Federation attempted to assassinate him with a car bombing during a public appearance, but the Sultan was delayed for a minute and the bomb went off too early, killing 26, wounding 58 of which four died at hospital and destroying 17 cars.Topics: Ottoman Empire, Ottoman Dynasty, Abdul Hamid II Pages: 4 ( words) Published: April 27, Abdulhamid II, The Final Autocrat The Ottoman Empire had many autocratic rulers from origin of its empire; some were prosperous while others were failures.
Sultan Abdul Hamid II (22 September – 10 February ) was the 34th Sultan of the Ottoman Empire and the last Sultan to exert effective autocratic control over the fracturing state. Abdul Hamid II was born at Çırağan Palace, Ortaköy, or at Topkapı Palace, both in Istanbul, the son of Sultan Abdulmejid I and one of his many wives, Tîr-î-Müjgan Sultan, (Circassia, 16 August – Constantinople, Feriye Palace, 2 November ).Successor: Mehmed V.
Abdul Hamid II 21 September – 10 February ) was the 34th Sultan of the Ottoman Empire and the last Sultan to exert effective autocratic control over the fracturing state. He oversaw a period of decline in the power and extent of the Ottoman Empire. Abdul Hamid II was born at Çırağan Palace, Ortaköy, or at Topkapı Palace, both in Constantinople, the son of Sultan Abdülmecid I and one of his many wives, Tîr-î-Müjgan Sultan, (Circassia, 16 August – Constantinople, Feriye Palace, 2 November ).Predecessor: Murad V.
Abdul Hamid II (Ottoman Turkish: عبد الحميد ثانی , `Abdü’l-Ḥamīd-i s ânî; Turkish: İkinci Abdülhamit ; 21 September – 10 February ) was the 34th Sultan of the Ottoman Empire and the last Sultan to exert effective control over the fracturing state.